|Back in mid 1982, Moyses M. Howard (drums) and Francis M. Howard (guitar, vocals) moved from their native land of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil with their parents and settled down in New Orleans (Metairie), Louisiana USA, after as little as a year Moyses took interest in music and drums, which made an immediate impact on Moyses, he then encouraged his younger brother Francis to take guitar lessons, Francis was instantly interested to learn and practice more and more. For the brothers, from '84 then on, both formed numerous metal bands with friends from school and numerous musicians, playing shows, under quite a few different band names at the time. After a couple a years, after they took interest in the newer underground metal bands and hardcore in the mid 80's that was starting to gain popularity, speed fascinated the brothers. Then on February 1986, they formed Incubus (Opprobrium's old band name at that time). Moyses and Francis put Scot W. Latour on vocals, a New Orleans born bass player, which have been playing also in the same heavy metal bands under different names with the Howard brothers for quite a few years before the birth of Incubus. In May '87, the trio recorded their first demo, entitled, "Supernatural Death", which spread through the underground death metal scene as the band continued on playing shows. A few months after the release of their demo, the band released their first debut album, "Serpent Temptation", through Brutal Records (USA) and Metal Works (UK). This masterpiece made quite and impact in the international metal scene and built up a strong worldwide fan following. At the end of '89, the band was looking for a new label to release their second album. In the meantime, in late '89, bassist/vocalist Scot W. Latour left the band and the brothers found a new bassist in Mark Lavenia, a native of Orlando, Florida. The band moved to Tampa, Florida back in '89, and Francis took over the vocal duties. Both the band a newer label, Nuclear Blast, that was freshly starting out, got in contact with each other in early 1990 in talks for the second band project. Nuclear Blast took the chance, signed the band and released the brilliant follow-up "Beyond The Unknown" in the mid 1990, an album that both Francis and Moyses recorded by themselves as sole musicians at Morrisound recording studio in Tampa, Florida. The second album once again received raving responses by both media and fans worldwide at that time and, in 1991, the band embarked into their first headlining extensive European tour. On February 1992, the band moved back to New Orleans , Louisiana, departing also from bass player Mark Lavenia. A couple of years later, in mid 1994, Francis and Moyses re-released their classic first album, "Serpent Temptation", which one of their songs of this project, "The battle of Armageddon", was featured in the popular Nuclear Blast Records compilation series, Death.....Is Just The Beginning" Vol.III in 1994.
In 1997, the brothers started to write new material and in late 1999, Francis and Moyses decided to record once again a collection of 10 new songs with Nuclear Blast records. They started to record their third album "Discerning Forces" during October/November 1999 in their native land of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil at Discovery Digital Studio (with producer Harris Johns). Harris Johns mixed the album at his Spider House studio (Berlin, Germany) in Feb-March of 2000. Once again the Howard brothers did the whole recording as a 2 piece band, Francis played all the rhythm and lead guitars, bass and vocals, while Moyses handled the drums. "Discerning Forces" was released in 2000, under a new band name, Opprobrium. The album shows a much more technical death metal material ever recorded by the brothers, with Francis reaching one of his most brutal vocal tones to date. The band changed their name from Incubus to Opprobrium so their fans won't mistake them to the new Pop/Rock band Incubus from Calabasas, California, which at that time were emerging commercially in the pop radio waves and with lots of videos airplay on MTV in America and worldwide, so the band had no choice but to change their name to avoid any confusions between the two bands. In October of 2005, both Moyses and Francis along with their families coincidentally moved back to Tampa, Florida, after the devastating effects of the powerful hurricane Katrina, which destroyed their home town of Metairie/New Orleans in the state of Louisiana, and the Howard brothers have been living in Tampa ever since.
During the fall of 2007, Francis and Moyses started to talk about a fourth Opprobrium record and from this meeting Francis started working on the new material for the new Opprobrium album. This was the first time in which Francis wrote by himself without Moyses. In early 2008, Moyses and Francis started to rehearse the new songs, that's when Moyses started contributing once again with his arrangements, song structure and timing, as he always does since the band's debut album, "Serpent Temptation", back in 1988. In July and August of 2008, the band recorded and mixed the new album in Tampa, Florida, and again, another album recorded by the two brothers, with Francis yet again doing all the guitars, solos, vocals and bass, and his brother Moyses on the drums. Eight years later (2008 Europe/Worldwide - 2009 U.S.A./N. America) Opprobrium is back again with a vengeance with one of their most brutal and powerful album to date "Mandatory Evac" (produced by the band) through Metal Mind Records. Opprobrium is expected to tour soon in 2009 to support their brand new album and to play in as many cities worldwide as possible.